btree_image.002Hash index is based on hash map data structure. It has lot of properties like, rehasing, load factor etc. You can read more about it in wikipedia.

We will more focus on usage and design of this data structure in the context of databases, where its size could be bigger than the physical memory and will need to be serialized to disk. Following are various points to consider when using it in databases.

Rehash – Increasing/decreasing size of buckets

Hash maps need to lock the whole data structure during the rehash. This may not be very expensive operation for in memory implementations of hash map. But may be almost impossible in the context of databases since rehash will have to lock the whole table.

Most databases suggest to rebuild the index when performance starts degrading over time due size of items in the index vs number of buckets. Or load factor going below certain threshold value.

Generic implementations of hashCode() and equals() methods

It may not be easy to provide hashCode() and equals() implementations specific to your index class. Usually databases will use their generic implementations which may not be very efficient to your index class. In wonderdb, we are working on a feature to register data type.

Load factor – Calculating buck size

By default Java hash map implementation sets load factor to 0.75. Allowing size of hash map to grow up to certain size before it is rehashed. For example say initial capacity of hash map is 100, then it will be rehashed  when 75th item is stored in to the hash map.

We need different load factor considerations for hash index. Lets take a example on how to calculate load factor for hash indexes.

As shown in the figure above index entries are stored in disk block. It is called leaf node in wonderdb. Say size of disk block is 2048 bytes. Now lets say you want to store long in to the index (8 bytes). Also assume index stores pointer to actual table record, say pointer size is 12 bytes, then it needs 20 bytes to store index item in the disk. Say one disk block (2048 bytes) stores 100 index items.

In this case, for optimized use of disk space it will be better to assume optimal settings will be 100 items per bucket, instead of 1 item per bucket (as in Java hash map implementation). So load factor settings for hash index will be .0075. Or in another way to look at it; to store 750 items, java hash map will need 1000 buckets to achieve 0.75 load factor, whereas hash index will need only 7.5 (or 8) buckets to store 1000 items since we need to assume 100 items per bucket in case of hash index.

BTree+ Vs Hash Index

Advantage of hash map data structure vs tree data structure is its access time is constant time (O1). Or it just takes 1 comparison (one instruction) to get to the item assuming it is properly organized. Where as for tree the access time is O(log n). Or it takes 10 compare instructions to get to an item in a tree containing 1024 items.

So for 1M items it takes 20 compares and for 1B it takes 30 compares for the tree. Where as for hash map it will take 1 compare instruction to get to the item. But problem is, we probably wont be able to store billions to items in hash map due to physical memory size constraints.

So for storing billions of items in hash index we need to also take load factor in to account. Say load factor is 0.0075 in case of storing longs, or in other words, if bucket should contain 100 items for optimal disk usage then already it needs to do 100 long 100 = 7 compares within the buckets to get to the item. So already access time is no more O1 but O7.

So to see optimal performance, we need number of items for Btree+ to do at lease 3x of 7 or 21 compares which is ~ 1M items.

So point here is, unless you are expecting millions of items in the index, dont even consider hash index.


We are able to see hash index performance can go up to 2x for a case where BTree+ needed 3 level deep structure.

We see performance of 60K queries per second in case of 32000 items with key size of 1500. We selected key size of 1500 just to make force 3 level deep BTree+. Where as for BTree+ we see close to 35-40K queries per second.

Here was the setup for the test.


It needed 32000 leaf nodes to store 32000 items since it can store only 1 item per node with 1500 size with 2048 block size.

It needed 32000/150 = 234 branch blocks. Branch blocks store pointers to next branch or leaf blocks and can store 150 items per block.

Next level of branch blocks needed 234/150 = 2 blocks.

And root node pointed to 2 next level blocks.

So our tree structure had 4 levels with

– 2 items in root node

– 2 branch blocks pointing to 234 items in next level

– 234 branch to point to 32000 leaf blocks.

– and 32000 leaf blocks.

It needed 1 compare (on root level) + 8 compares (on next level containing 234 pointers) + 15 compares (to get to leaf node) + 1 compare to find item in leaf node = 25 compares.

Hash Index

We had 32000 buckets to make hash index fully optimized to get O1 compare to get to an item.

With this setup we saw 60K queries per second for hash index and 40K queries per second for BTree+. over 50% improvement.


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